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Speaking of evolution and Christian faith . . .

Much of the confusion, hand-wringing, angst, and raised hackles comes from failing to ask of ourselves a simple question: what do we have the right to expect from the biblical origins texts, namely the story of Adam?

I argue in The Evolution of Adam that, far from “attacking” the Bible, information from outside of the Bible “calibrates” the kind of expectations we bring to the biblical texts in question.

So, things like genomic studies, the fossil record, and ancient Mesopotamian creation myths help us see that Genesis 1-11 is neither science nor history. And so seeking from these stories scientific and historical information is to misidentify the genre of literature we are reading—to expect something from these stories they are not prepared to deliver.

The findings of science and biblical scholarship are not the enemies of Christian faith—they are only “enemies” of biblical literalism, which is not to be equated with the Christian faith.

In fact, I’ll take this a step further: The discoveries of science and of ancient history are opportunities to be truly “biblical” precisely because they are invitations to reconsider what it means to read the creation stories well.

Although this means turning down a different path than most Christians before us have taken, it would still not be the first time Christians have had to divert their path from the familiar to the unfamiliar.

We need only think of the ruckus caused by Copernicus and Galileo, telling us the earth whizzes around the sun, as do the other planets, when the Bible “clearly” says that the earth is fixed and stable (Ps 104:5) and the heavenly bodies do all the moving. Sometimes older views—no matter how biblically grounded we might think they are—do and must give way to newer ones if the circumstances warrant.

In fact, shifts in thinking like this, where older perspectives give way to new ones, is a perfectly biblical notion.

The prophet Nahum rejoices at the destruction of the dreaded Assyrians and their capital Nineveh in 612 BCE, but the prophet Jonah, writing generations later after the return from exile, speaks of God’s desire that the Ninevites repent and be saved.

What happened? Travel broadens, and Israel’s experience of exile drove them to think differently about who their God is and what this God is up to on the world stage.

In fact, Israel’s entire history is given a fresh coat of paint in the books of 1 and 2 Chronicles, which differs remarkably, and often flatly contradicts, the earlier history of Israel in the books of Samuel and Kings.

Why? Because Israel’s journey to exile and back home again drove the Judahites to see God from a fresh perspective.

We could talk for hours about how the theology of the New Testament positively depends on fresh twists and turns to Israel’s story, such as a crucified messiah and rendering optional the “eternal covenant” of circumcision God made with Abraham (Genesis 17) as well as the timeless dietary restrictions given by God to Moses on Mt. Sinai (Leviticus 11).

What happened? Jesus forced a new path for Israel’s story that went well beyond what the Bible “says.”

**Simply put, seeing the need to move beyond biblical categories is biblical—and as such poses a wonderful model—even mandate—to move beyond the Bible when the need arises and reason dictates.**

Being a “biblical” Christian today means accepting that challenge: a theology that genuinely grows out of the Bible but that is not confined to the Bible.

And so I see the matter of Christian faith and evolution not as a “debate” but as a discussion, not defending familiar orthodoxies as if in a fortress but accepting the challenge of a journey of theological exploration and discovery.

For me, that approach is much more than an intellectual exercise—though it is that—but a spiritual responsibility.

A version of this post first appeared in October 2015.

Pete Enns, Ph.D.

Peter Enns (Ph.D., Harvard University) is Abram S. Clemens professor of biblical studies at Eastern University in St. Davids, Pennsylvania. He has written numerous books, including The Bible Tells Me So, The Sin of Certainty, and How the Bible Actually Works. Tweets at @peteenns.